المواضيع الاكثر مشاهده
CDMA is a form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum communications. In general, Spread Spectrum communications is distinguished by three key elements:
1. The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary to send the information. This results in many benefits, such as immunity to interference and jamming and multi-user access, which we’ll discuss later on.
2. The bandwidth is spread by means of a code which is independent of the data. The independence of the code distinguishes this from standard modulation schemes in which the data modulation will always spread the spectrum somewhat.
3. The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data. The use of an independent code and synchronous reception allows multiple users to access the same frequency band at the same time.
In order to protect the signal, the code used is pseudo-random. It appears random, but is actually deterministic, so that the receiver can reconstruct the code for synchronous detection. This pseudo-random code is also called pseudo-noise (PN).
Three Types of Spread Spectrum Communications
There are three ways to spread the bandwidth of the signal:
1.Frequency hopping. The signal is rapidly switched between different frequencies within the hopping bandwidth pseudo-randomly, and the receiver knows before hand where to find the signal at any given time.
2.Time hopping. The signal is transmitted in short bursts pseudo-randomly, and the receiver knows beforehand when to expect the burst.
3.Direct sequence. The digital data is directly coded at a much higher frequency. The code is generated pseudo-randomly, the receiver knows how to generate the same code, and correlates the received signal with that code to extract the data.
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
CDMA is a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system. The CDMA system works directly on 64 kbit/sec digital signals. These signals can be digitized voice, ISDN channels, modem data, etc.
Figure 1 shows a simplified Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system. For clarity, the figure shows one channel operating in one direction only.
Signal transmission consists of the following steps:
1. A pseudo-random code is generated, different for each channel and each successive connection.
2. The Information data modulates the pseudo-random code (the Information data is “spread”).
3. The resulting signal modulates a carrier.
4. The modulated carrier is amplified and broadcast.
Signal reception consists of the following steps:
1. The carrier is received and amplified.
2. The received signal is mixed with a local carrier to recover the spread digital signal.
3. A pseudo-random code is generated, matching the anticipated signal.
4. The receiver acquires the received code and phase locks its own code to it.
5. The received signal is correlated with the generated code, extracting the Information data.
complete >>>>pseudo-random code
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